Hot Milk coverI started reading Deborah Levy’s latest novel, Hot Milk, as I’d liked two of her previous books, Swimming Home and Things I Don’t Want To Know. Swimming Home is an unusual, dream-like novel about what happens when a strange young woman arrives and disrupts a family holiday in France. For me, it explored the different forms depression can take and the impact historical trauma can have on someone’s life. I probably enjoyed Things I Don’t Want To Know more. It is a collection of autobiographical essays based on the four motivations George Orwell ascribes to a writer in Why I Write: sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse and political purpose. These are the titles of the four essays in Levy’s book but the chapters relate to the titles in a subtle, tangential way, looking back at different periods of her life, including her childhood in South Africa. I found some of the book really moving, especially the parts about her growing up and finding her voice. What I like is how she writes about women’s experience in a stimulating, analytical way.

Her new novel Hot Milk focuses on a 20-something woman, Sophie, who comes to Almeria in Southern Spain with her mother, Rose, who is suffering from an unexplained illness which means she cannot walk and is dependent on Sophie for help with everyday life. The women have come to Spain to consult a well-known doctor whom they hope will be able to cure her. Chance encounters lead Sophie to Ingrid, a German seamstress who is in Spain with her boyfriend, and Juan, a student who works on the beach treating tourists who have been stung by the ‘medusa’, the translucent but deadly jellyfish which lurk in the sea. The novel has a few things in common with Swimming Home: the sense of overwhelming heat and vivid evocation of southern Europe, the strangeness of being in another country, a mysterious atmosphere. The plot however is very different and I found it a unique and captivating read.

The novel has a mythical feeling as it hints at hidden and fundamental emotions and passions. Its characters sometimes appear like Greek gods, while sometimes they are described as monsters. At the same time it’s a very contemporary novel, set in a recognisably modern world with 20-something characters, which makes it all the more intriguing. The novel explores fascinating subjects like psychosomatic illness and parent-child relationships, through writing that weaves a spell. It is poetic and elliptical but never heavy-going and has a sense of urgency and intensity to it that kept me engrossed.

Sophie has abandoned a PhD in anthropology because of her mother’s illness and is working in a cafe. It feels as if in many ways she is unable to start her life properly. As an anthropologist, she observes everything as an outsider and sometimes sees events through an anthropological lens, which I found interesting. She is an unpredictable, troubled character and you feel that she doesn’t understand herself well. In Spain she starts to follow her own impulses more and become bolder. Although an unconventional novel, Hot Milk is also a classic coming-of-age tale about a drive towards independence. There is an interlude where Sophie goes to Athens to visit her father, whom she never usually sees, and his new wife and child. In many ways this episode made me feel angry for Sophie because of the way she is treated, but in the end she rejects their way of life and actively chooses her own path. Sophie has no boundaries and is completely unaware of her own power, but all of this starts to change towards the end of the book.

There is a lot more to this novel than I have described here; I haven’t even talked about Sophie’s relationship with Ingrid, which is unsettling, possibly damaging and definitely ambiguous. Levy is clearly interested in exploring psychology, unconscious drives and the dynamics between people. Because of the scorching setting and dream-like atmosphere, this is an ideal summer read.

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The WonderThe Wonder is an exciting and utterly absorbing novel that kept me hooked and turning pages to find out what happened next. Set in nineteenth-century Ireland, the story begins when a young English nurse, Lib Wright, arrives in a remote village. Lib has been hired for an unusual task: to keep watch over an eleven-year-old girl, Anna O’Donnell, who appears to have survived for four months without food. Anna’s case has mystified even the village doctor and priest, and has attracted visitors from far and wide to marvel at this miraculous child. Lib’s task is simply to discover the truth, but her initial detached scepticism becomes more complicated as she spends time with Anna and it becomes clear the story is more mysterious than she thought.

It is best to read this novel knowing as little as possible about the story. While I will try to avoid giving away the main plot twists, there may be some spoilers in what follows…

First of all, I really appreciated the fact that Lib was a complex character, as this kept me intrigued and made her more likeable. She feels uncomfortable in the rural, superstitious environment she has suddenly been dropped into, and is very aware of her superior education and training, and the differences in religious beliefs between herself and the Irish Catholics. She isn’t particularly keen to ingratiate herself and comes across as rather brusque and haughty but I liked the fact she is opinionated and sticks to her principles. As we learn more about Lib’s background, it emerges that she experienced a loss which led her to sign up as a nurse in the Crimea under Florence Nightingale. I enjoyed following her irreverent observations and intelligent questioning of the events around her, while it slowly becomes clear that she is more emotional and passionate than she imagines.

I also found it interesting to learn about how anorexia was viewed in the nineteenth century, as either a sign of sainthood or as a possible medical advance; the deluded village doctor imagines that Anna is a more evolved type of human being and that if humans can survive without food, it will lead to an end to war and starvation. The connections with religion, especially in such a devout country, and with the potato famine in Ireland a few years previously make this a complicated and fascinating subject. Even when the shocking cause of Anna’s anorexia is revealed, a psychological reason based in her experience and family background, it remains intertwined with her obsessive religious rituals. I found it interesting that in the end only an appeal to spiritual notions of rebirth has a chance of saving her, when logic and science have failed.

The atmosphere of the novel was unsettling at times, a combination of the isolated rural setting among damp fields and peat bogs, the villagers’ beliefs in fairies and magical rituals, and some macabre details of nineteenth-century attitudes to death. The author vividly describes the effects of starvation on Anna’s body, the physical reality of anorexia as seen by the nurse contrasting with the idealised view embraced by the priest and doctor who fail to see the real girl behind their theories. The novel cleverly shows how Lib, although intelligent and an experienced nurse, is patronised and dismissed by the doctors as emotional and lacking in medical expertise. The novel builds up suspense and tension, especially towards the end, as Lib is determined to discover the truth and bring it to light.

The Wonder coverAnother aspect of the novel I really liked was Lib’s relationship with William Byrne, a young Irish newspaper reporter. Their dialogue was a pleasure to read and I enjoyed the skilful way that the author built up their relationship and showed how Lib behaved differently with William than with the other characters, showing more of her true self. I felt at certain points that their relationship was very modern and I wondered if it was completely true to the nineteenth century, but then maybe my view is coloured by reading certain Victorian novels and their portrayal of women as angelic and innocent. I’m not sure how possible or unusual it would have been to defy convention. In any case, I was so pleased to discover such a vivid and intriguing relationship in fiction and liked the characters of both William and Lib so much, that this didn’t detract much from my enjoyment.

I also found the last part of the novel to be less plausible than the earlier sections, which perhaps I noticed because the rest of the novel felt very convincing and I was completely caught up in the storytelling. However the conclusion felt emotionally satisfying to me and maybe The Wonder, as its title suggests, is not intended to be the most realistic novel ever. I certainly found the book gripping, passionate and vivid, exploring a fascinating subject with imagination.

Bad DreamsI was looking forward to reading Tessa Hadley’s new volume of short stories, Bad Dreams, but it was even better than I expected. I feel a strong connection to her writing, her contemporary settings and characters, and I couldn’t stop thinking about some of these stories afterwards. The stories in Bad Dreams range across different times and places but always focus on relationships and families, memories and women’s experiences, and the defining incidents in people’s lives: a moment of realisation, an event that set someone’s life on a different path or a childhood experience that they always remember.

There are many reasons that I like Tessa Hadley’s work so much: her characterisation and psychological insight, the way her characters seem alive, without any cliche whatsoever. The way she can describe and strongly evoke places, whether it’s suburbia in the 60s or modern-day Leeds and London. I especially notice the vivid way she describes houses and the secret life going on inside a home. Some of her stories miraculously capture a child’s point of view and the sense of viewing the adult world from an outsider’s perspective, with a child’s curiosity and anxiety and gradual understanding.

One of the most striking stories was the first, An Abduction, which is set in the 1960s and describes how a teenage girl ended up getting in a car with a group of older boys, students on holiday from university. Jane, the main character, is portrayed as ordinary, conventional, from a conservative background and lacking in confidence, while Daniel, the leader of the boys is charismatic, intellectual and self-destructive. The events of the story are surprising and show that Jane has more of a rebellious streak than first appears. The setting is rather dreamlike and nostalgic and to me it seemed to capture the youth culture of the 1960s and a sense of different worlds being thrown together. A sort of coda at the end of the story, which describes what happened to the characters later on, is very powerful, as it shows the different ways people can view the same event, how what is important and life-defining to one person can mean nothing to another, and how a successful person can have a buried past that not even they themselves really know about. There is a sort of understated anger and intensity to the ending.

Probably my favourite story however was Flight, the story of Claire, a 40-something woman with a successful career in America, returning to visit her childhood home and sister’s family in Leeds. I loved the way the family relationships were described and the sense of distance Claire felt from the others, which was something she had deliberately chosen and welcomed but also grieved over. I really liked how Hadley gradually revealed more about the family background and hinted that Claire was more troubled than she first seemed. The ending was perfectly written and I felt there was something heartbreaking about it.

Another story I enjoyed was The Stain, a story about a young woman working as a carer for a wealthy and elderly man. It’s a very realistic, contemporary story and it is really refreshing to see working-class characters who are complex and real and not cliched at all. A few stories move earlier into the 20th century; Deeds Not Words is set at the time of the first world war and women’s suffrage movement, while Silk Brocade is about two young seamstresses in the 1960s. Most of my favourites are the contemporary stories, however; apart from the ones I’ve mentioned, I really liked Experience, about a 20-something woman house-sitting for an older, more glamorous woman and what happens when she starts to reads her diaries. I felt this story had an emotional impact because of the contrast between the narrator, who feels she hasn’t really lived properly, and Hana with her destructive love affairs and unapologetic way of living. I really liked the way the narrator’s and Hana’s roles were reversed at the end of the story.

To sum up: in case it isn’t obvious, I thought this book was wonderful and I’m sure I will think about these stories for a long time to come.

Another Mothers SonSet in contemporary London, Another Mother’s Son is an intriguing and unusual novel which follows events in the lives of the narrator, Lorna, and her three sons as they struggle with adolescence and moving into adulthood.

Lorna, an archivist, is divorced from the boys’ father, Randal, who left her to start a new relationship and family. Oliver has left for university and hardly ever sees his mother, while Ross, the youngest son, has recently started going out with Jude, a girl from school, whose own parents are having difficulties in their marriage. Ewan, the eldest, is the most troubled, as he dropped out of university after a term and now lives in the attic room of Lorna’s house, barely speaking to her, not studying or working, and only occasionally leaving the house on solitary expeditions. The main focus of the novel, however, is an incident at Ross’s school involving his English teacher, Mr Child, and the consequences for the students and parents.

One thing I really liked about this book is the realistic way it describes modern urban life. Everyday details are narrated in a detached, emotionless tone, which distances the reader from them and makes them appear fresh and even slightly surreal at times. The deadpan narration brings out the humour or strangeness in minor events and encounters. It reflects Lorna’s alienation from most of the people around her: the parents at Ross’s school, her ex-husband, a disturbing visitor to her archive who wants to write a novel abut a historical transport disaster, and the irritating Jane, who appears to have set her sights on marrying Lorna’s elderly father.

The novel explores motherhood and more generally the relationships between the generations. Lorna sees her sons’ generation as under pressure and at risk from modern technology and social media in a way she wasn’t when growing up. Ross’s school, Lloyd-Barron Academy, is portrayed as a terribly unsympathetic, humourless and over-regulated environment. The headmaster is obsessed with management-speak and only concerned with marketing and creating a perfect image for the school. Meanwhile, the group of middle-class parents and their attempts to interfere with issues at school is described precisely and wittily.

The dialogue between Lorna and her sons seemed very believable to me. I could feel Lorna’s anxiety and attempts to build relationships with her sons, as well as their irritation with her. The relationship between Lorna and Jude was interesting because they seemed to grow to like each other, despite their initial awkwardness and distance. Lorna sees everything from the outside as no one really confides in her and so she has to piece events together, always discovering the truth later than others.

Although I liked the book, I found its events at times almost too mundane and disconnected from each other, lacking in any meaning. I was most interested in the events at Ross’s school, the interactions between the parents and teachers. The novel left me wanting more; for example I found Ewan’s situation intriguing and wanted to explore that. I wondered why he seemed to have given up on life and spent his time in bed or sitting at his desk for hours on end. I liked the description of his intricate artwork, elaborately drawn but executed in the most throw-away materials possible, cheap biro and lined A4 paper. Perhaps the mystery and lack of explanation reflected the way Lorna felt, as if she had no idea how Ewan had reached this point and had already exhausted all possible ways of helping him. The whole novel is written in a muted, melancholic tone, as if Lorna is just watching events unfold and is unable to help her sons or have any impact on the world around her.

I have now read and enjoyed all Janet Davey’s novels. Another Mother’s Son seemed a more personal book than the others, with its introspective first-person narration. If you enjoy fiction by Anita Brookner and Tessa Hadley, I would recommend picking up Davey’s books.

Certain Women

Recently I went to see Certain Women, the new film by American director Kelly Reichardt, which tells three separate but very loosely connected stories about women living in the US state of Montana. It is the kind of film which divides opinion. In the group I went with, most people found it slow, boring or pointless, and I noticed a few audience members left the cinema before the end of the film. So I feel the need to write about it and explain why I liked this film so much.

The stories in Certain Women are told slowly but so realistically that I became absorbed in the women’s lives. The film shows people going about everyday life in the same way that the French director Eric Rohmer’s films do, revealing how it feels to live that particular life in those circumstances and environment. While Rohmer’s films are usually about groups of middle-class characters and the relationships between them, Certain Women focuses on both middle and working-class characters, the experiences of solitude, loneliness and self-sufficiency, and the difficulties in connecting with other people. It’s not true to say that nothing happens; quite a lot happens but it’s presented in a low-key, realist style and partly happens internally, within the characters’ emotions. The film gives you time and space to immerse yourself in the characters and the beautiful, remote, sometimes desolate setting, a place of vast mountains, small towns, diners and empty highways.

The first story follows a lawyer, Laura, played by Laura Dern, who is representing William (Jared Harris), a middle-aged man who wants to bring a court case against his previous employer. It emerges that there was some sort of incident at work and William suffered injuries and ongoing health problems and no longer works. It becomes clear that he is spending a lot of time at the lawyer’s office, turning up uninvited, and carries a lot of anger towards his former employer. It turns out that it is impossible for him to bring the court case because he has already agreed to take the small compensation initially offered to him by his employer. Laura has been attempting to explain this to him for months, but it takes a male lawyer to tell him before he can accept the truth. Laura’s relationship with William is complicated, as she sympathises with his situation and endeavours to be kind to him but also feels uncomfortable with his erratic behaviour and threats of destruction. At one point he insists on getting in the car to drive home with her and then says he wants to shoot his employers with a machine-gun. In this unnerving situation Laura tries hard to maintain boundaries and a professional distance. Somehow Kelly Reichardt manages to capture on film the way in which a woman can feel unsafe in very mundane, undramatic circumstances. I don’t know how the film achieves this; maybe it’s through the cinematography, which I remember in those scenes as being cramped and oppressive, or the excellent, emotionally convincing acting by Laura Dern and Jared Harris.

The story progresses when William takes a security guard hostage at his former employer and Laura is called in to help speak to him and persuade him to give himself up to the police. I found this section absorbing because it was so realistic, capturing the way it might feel to be caught up in this situation and all the small decisions Laura needs to make to achieve her aim, while obviously feeling fear and anxiety. William makes a bargain with Laura but she fails to keep her side of it. The scene ends with a shot of Laura, with an expression perhaps of doubt over whether she had made the right decision or of pain that she had betrayed William, even though she did what she needed to do as a lawyer and to prevent a crime taking place.

The second story follows Gina (Michelle Williams), who is married with a daughter. In contrast to Laura, she is less solitary and more involved in family life. She seems harassed and impatient with her husband and moody teenage daughter. I found Gina’s character the least appealing of all the women portrayed, as she seemed quite hard and even slightly ruthless, and I found her story rather disconcerting. We find out that Gina and her husband Ryan (James LeGros) are building a new house. They decide to stop at the home of Albert (Rene Auberjonois), an elderly man they know, to persuade him to give them some sandstone that is on his property. Those few words summarise the plot of this section of the film. For me, the film focuses on the sense of unease surrounding this decision, as Albert is confused and it is unclear if he understands what they are suggesting. They initially offer him money but in the end he is not paid. Although he did agree to give them the stones, it is debatable whether they should have tried harder to pay him. The scenes between the characters also felt awkward as it is clear that Albert is very lonely and vulnerable but Gina and Ryan are only really visiting him to try and obtain the sandstone. Both Ryan and Gina do have some doubts about whether to proceed, but the last time we see Gina she is looking at the stones contentedly, maybe envisaging the house they will build. Maybe, as Gina suggests, they will make something wonderful from the stones to make up for the way they came into their possession.

The final section is probably the most emotionally powerful of all three. Kristen Stewart plays a young lawyer, Beth, who is teaching an evening class on school law to a group of bored teachers in a small town called Belfry. The grumpiness and apparent reluctance of the teachers to be there results in some amusing moments. Jamie (Lily Gladstone), a young woman who works on a ranch nearby, also attends the class and the film depicts the relationship developing between the two. Beth tells Jamie that she is driving four hours each way from the city of Livingston to teach the class, in need of extra money and experience as she is just starting out in her career, and she is obviously exhausted. Jamie lives an isolated life on the ranch. It is clear she loves horses and other animals and the work suits her very well, but her life seems very lonely and lacking in human connection. The film evokes strongly, both through the way the scenes are cut and filmed and through Lily Gladstone’s wonderful acting, how the law class is the highlight of Jamie’s week and the focus for all her hopes. She tells Beth she wasn’t enrolled but just walked into class when she saw other people go in, this detail showing her desire for human contact and company. This story mostly takes place at night, and the dark, quiet settings, from the ranch to the diner to the schoolroom in the evening, conjure up a mood of mystery and isolation. We can see how Jamie is falling in love with Beth, while Beth is friendly but concerned with her own problems and mainly sees Jamie as someone to unload to. She sees her time in Belfry as transitory and peripheral to her real life.

When it is announced that Beth will not be teaching the class any longer, Jamie on impulse drives the four hours to Livingston to find Beth. Her early morning wanderings round Livingston reveal the contrast between rural and city life. She looks curiously through softly-lit windows at people talking in late-night cafes or bars, as if seeing a life she didn’t know existed. Meanwhile, a shop window displays cowboy hats and check shirts, the ranch lifestyle being sold to wealthier city dwellers. The film perfectly captures the sense of dislocation experienced in the small hours of the morning. Eventually Jamie finds Beth and in a sad scene understands that Beth is not interested in a relationship with her. It is all the more poignant because Jamie doesn’t express her disappointment to anyone; all she can do is get in the car and drive away again. The film leaves the viewer to draw their own conclusions. Although I very much empathised with Jamie and felt she was a very likeable character, I could understand Beth’s reaction, as she perhaps found it disturbing to realise the feelings Jamie had built up for her without her knowledge. I felt there was a link to the first story, with Laura and William, in that a greater connection between the characters was prevented by the need for self-protection.

When I watched the film, I felt it was like reading short stories and it reminded me a little of the writing of Alice Munro. I discovered afterwards that it is based on short stories by an American writer called Maile Meloy. The sense of short stories remains in the interiority and introspective nature of the film, the feeling that it is exploring the significance of these events to the characters, giving glimpses of their histories and emotional lives. The three sections are very loosely related to one another (for example, one character appears in both the first two) but there are no real connections between the stories. Maybe the real connection is the mood or atmosphere of the film, which weaves a spell around all the characters. It depicts self-contained episodes in these characters’ lives but the film ends by returning to each of them in turn, without a clear resolution, with a sense that there is more to be imagined and known about these four women.

This must be the placeThis Must Be The Place is a novel like a patchwork quilt that weaves together many stories, all starting out from the central character of Daniel, a linguistics professor from Brooklyn, who now lives in a remote area of Ireland with his wife Claudette. Claudette used to be a famous film star but notoriously disappeared from that world about 15 years ago and now lives a reclusive life in an isolated cottage with Daniel and her children. One day Daniel is listening to the radio when he hears an interview which reveals to him a shocking fact about an incident from his student days. He has tried to put the incident behind him but now feels compelled to discover the truth about what happened years before.

The novel is told from many different points of view, moving back and forth in time and across the world. Each chapter starts with a different person, a year and a place, and although the narrative is told in the third person, we experience events through that particular character’s eyes. I really like the technique of different viewpoints when it is done well, as it is here. Each character has a distinctive voice and way of thinking that mostly feels true to life and makes the novel interesting to read. The leaps backwards and forwards in time kept me absorbed, as events from the past revealed more about Daniel and Claudette’s previous lives. Some chapters introduce new characters’ viewpoints or are set in unexpected time periods and I liked the unpredictability. These small glimpses into minor characters’ lives (for example, Maeve or Rosalind) left the rest of their stories untold, which I found intriguing.

I liked the complexity of the characters, particularly Daniel, Claudette and some of Daniel’s friends from his university days. I think one particular strength of this author is how she captures the way people’s family backgrounds and early life experiences can influence their later lives, without bludgeoning the reader over the head to make the point. The parts of the novel I liked the most were the depiction of the central incident which affected Daniel so much, the encounter with his friend Todd, and in general the stories of both Daniel’s and Claudette’s lives in their early twenties. I felt the novel describes vividly how it is (or was) to be a student or recent graduate. OK, so it’s set in glamorous environments but it captures realistic emotions and experiences from that time of life, both the excitement and the darker side. I was slightly less interested in Claudette’s experiences as a film star, although I liked the character of the director, Timou, who I imagined to be a Lars Von Trier figure, while Claudette would be more of an Isabelle Huppert! O’Farrell also experiments with different ways of telling the story, for example there is an interesting chapter which is written in the form of an auction catalogue at a sale of some of Claudette’s personal belongings.

Because of how much time, space and plot the book encompasses, it doesn’t seem to have a central theme and maybe the variety is the point. Perhaps the intention is simply to explore how this incident affects Daniel and his marriage, or to express how complicated and sprawling one person’s life can be, particularly today when global travel is more commonplace and people are less likely to stay in the same place they grew up, around the same people, for their whole lives. If I had a criticism, it would be that later in the book O’Farrell crams too many themes and issues into one family and it became slightly clicheed and superficial how complicated it all was. Despite this, in general I enjoyed the novel because of the main characters and central plotline. I wondered why O’Farrell chose the title This Must Be The Place and think maybe it expresses the sense of recognition that someone feels when they find home, either in a physical location or with a person. I am still thinking about the novel a couple of weeks later and will be looking for more books by Maggie O’Farrell.

Station ElevenStation Eleven sparked my imagination like no book had for a long time. This post-apocalyptic novel presents a vivid and perfectly created world: a setting that is deeply atmospheric, both chilling and beautiful. It has been categorised as science fiction but I would say it is a dystopian novel related to the works of Cormac McCarthy and J.G. Ballard. I think Emily St John Mandel resembles Ballard in her visual imagination and ability to portray a civilisation breaking down, although Station Eleven presents a much less bleak and cynical view of human nature and society than Ballard’s works.

The novel opens when a famous actor, Arthur, collapses and dies on stage playing King Lear in a theatre in Toronto. At around the same time a flu pandemic begins to spread throughout the world, killing the majority of the world’s population and causing a complete breakdown of the modern, technologically advanced society we know. The novel then moves forward twenty years to follow Kirsten, who was a child actress on stage with Arthur in the production of King Lear and is now a member of the Travelling Symphony, a band of actors and musicians performing Shakespeare plays in the settlements that have developed following the pandemic. The novel also follows various other characters, all connected with Arthur in some way, and mixes present-day events with flashbacks to their lives before the collapse.

I found Station Eleven completely absorbing and very inventive. Set in a recognisable, everyday world, the effects of the pandemic are plausible and realistic. The pandemic is gripping and frightening to read about, but this section is relatively short. The main action of the novel, set twenty years later, has a distinctive tone of nostalgia for the world we live in now, which I found interesting. The characters longingly remember everyday objects and technology that most of us take for granted. St John Mandel also explores how this nostalgia affects different generations. Children born after the collapse know nothing else and consider descriptions of, for example, electricity as incredible fairy stories. Alternatively, they show no interest at all. The book asks if those who are older adults and spent most of their lives in the pre-pandemic world are more or less fortunate, as they have lost more but have a greater store of memories to recall. Kirsten falls somewhere in between, as she was eight years old and therefore has only a few, almost dream-like, memories. I wondered if this was the most difficult position to be in, as Kirsten and her friend are constantly searching through abandoned buildings trying to find tokens of civilisation, such as books half-remembered from childhood or magazine photos of Arthur.

In this novel, material objects are repositories of memory. Trivial objects attain an intense significance to people once they become scarce. One of the older characters sets up a Museum of Civilisation, in which items such as laptops, phones, shoes and newspapers are preserved. The importance of the museum is to keep the memory of the former world alive, both for those who knew it and those who never experienced it. The book has an elegiac tone and creates a distance from the present-day world that made me see it as more precarious.

In fact, the novel really succeeded in making me imagine what it would be like to live in a world where modern civilisation had disappeared. It is always implicit in the novel that it would be impossible to communicate with anyone elsewhere in the world, and that without the internet or even a postal service, you would never know what had happened to people you were separated from at the time of the pandemic. I think for me this is the most striking aspect of this imagined world.

Although it is disturbing, I felt the novel also imagines a certain beauty in a post-technological age, describing how, following the pandemic, plants and animals start to encroach on the built environment humans had created, or how the stars appear much brighter at night. It creates parallels with the Shakespearean age, when plague frequently swept through London, and makes it seem appropriate that the Travelling Symphony perform only Shakespeare plays to their audiences. Nevertheless, I agree with other reviews I have read that it is strange that no one seems to create any new art or music after the collapse. I don’t know if this is a deliberate decision by the author, to show that people would concentrate on survival to such an extent that the creation of art would be an impossibility. Another unexpected aspect of this world is that traditional religion seems to be almost entirely absent, and in its place new cults have emerged in certain settlements. Again, the novel never mentions traditional religion so I wondered if its disappearance was something the author felt would be inevitable in these circumstances.

The post-pandemic world begins as a violent and dangerous place in which many people are killed and those who survive are traumatised. However the novel keeps returning to the fact that, after twenty years, the world is becoming kinder and more civilised again. I felt that the author sees civilisation as a strong, perhaps innate, human impulse that can survive almost anything. Even with the limited resources they have, people start newspapers, libraries and, of course, the theatre of the Travelling Symphony. I don’t describe it well but in the novel it is a very moving and powerful theme. There is almost the sense that a new cycle of history is starting, which will rebuild what has been lost.

Perhaps because there was such a large cast of characters, some were memorable, while others, such as Kirsten’s friends in the Travelling Symphony, weren’t particularly distinctive. I felt sympathetic towards Kirsten, who is perhaps the character the reader identifies with and follows the most. Jeevan, a paparazzo who photographs Arthur, was one of my favourite characters, as I found him likeable and the scenes involving his brother Frank moving. I also found Clark, Arthur’s friend, very sympathetic. Although I enjoyed the flashback parts of the novel, I never particularly grasped what everyone saw in Arthur and was unsure whether he was powerful enough as the central pivot for all the other characters. To me, Miranda was one of the most interesting characters, an artist and very private person who I felt prioritised her art and internal, imaginative life above everything else, organising her existence so she could concentrate on the creation of her new world.

Overall, I would recommend Station Eleven as a beautiful and unsettling novel that lives in the memory long after reading.